Detail View: RIT/NTID Deaf Studies Archive: African American Sign Language in visual theatre

Filename: 
ds_0101_mbanks_cap_01.mp4
Identifier: 
ds_0101_mbanks_cap_01.mp4
Title: 
African American Sign Language in visual theatre
Creator: 
Banks, Michelle A.
Subject: 
American Sign Language
Subject: 
African Americans
Subject: 
Deaf United States
Subject: 
Deaf, Theater for the
Summary: 
Michelle Banks shows a videotape of a performance in African American Sign Language. Following the video, she leads a group discussion focusing on how to use African American Sign Language in theatre and the importance of preserving Black Sign Language or African American Sign Language and Black Deaf culture.
Publisher: 
National Technical Institute for the Deaf
Digital Publisher: 
Rochester Institute of Technology - RIT Libraries - RIT Archive Collections
Contributor: 
Karen Christie ASL Literature Collection
Contributor: 
ASL Literature Conference (1991 National Technical Institute for the Deaf)
Date of Original: 
1991
Date of Digitization: 
2018
Broad Type: 
moving image
Digital File Format: 
mp4
Physical Format: 
VHS
Dimensions of Original: 
97 minutes
Language: 
American Sign Language
Language: 
English
Original Item Location: 
RITDSA.0101
Library Collection: 
Sculptures in the Air: An Accessible Online Video Repository of the American Sign Language (ASL) Poetry and Literature Collections
Library Collection: 
Karen Christie ASL Literature Collection
Digital Project: 
2018-2019 CLIR Grant-ASL Poetry and Literature
Catalog Record: 
https://albert.rit.edu/record=b3954517
Catalog Record: 
https://twcarchivesspace.rit.edu/repositories/2/resources/889
Place: 
New York - Rochester
RIT Spaces and Places: 
Henrietta Campus
Rights: 
RIT Libraries makes materials from its collections available for educational and research purposes pursuant to U.S. Copyright Law. You are free to use this Item in any way that is permitted by the copyright and related rights legislation that applies to your use. It is your responsibility to obtain permission from the copyright holder to publish or reproduce images in print or electronic form.
Rights: 
CC BY-NC-ND: Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Transcript: 
WOMAN: I WOULD LIKE TO GIVE A WARM WELCOME TO MICHELLE BANKS. SHE IS THE DIRECTOR OF ONYX AT ... IN THAT PART OF NEW YORK CITY. DURING THE TALK, SHE WILL BE TALKING ABOUT IS AFRICAN-AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE IN VISUAL THEATER. NOW, I DON'T WANT TO GO ON ANY LONGER. I'D LIKE TO GIVE HER A CHANCE TO START, BUT... [INDISTINCT] SHE DOESN'T WANT YOU TO NECESSARILY HOLD YOUR QUESTIONS TILL THE END. IF YOU HAVE A QUESTION, SHE'LL BE HAPPY TO ANSWER AT ANY POINT... [DISTORTED AUDIO] ...EVERYONE GETS A CHANCE TO DO THAT AFTER THE DISCUSSION. SO, OK, MICHELLE BANKS. HERE WE GO. [APPLAUSE] WOMAN: HELLO. THANK YOU. THANK YOU. MAYBE YOU ARE WONDERING NOW WHAT IS THIS THING CALLED AFRICAN-AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE LIBERAL ARTS. WELL, I SPOKE TO 3... [INDISTINCT] ...HOW THEY FEEL ABOUT THE LANGUAGE. AND I WANTED... [INDISTINCT] ...PUT ON A PRODUCTION WITH THE TITLE, "FOR COLORED GIRLS WHO HAVE CONSIDERED SUICIDE WHEN THE RAINBOW IS ENUF," WRITTEN BY NTOZAKE SHANGE. SHE'S A BLACK HEARING WOMAN WHO WROTE THIS PLAY ABOUT ALL BLACK HEARING WOMEN AND ABOUT THEIR STRUGGLE TO REDUCE THAT... AND PRESSURE BY SOCIETY... ...INFORMATION OF ALL KINDS. NOW, I'D LIKE TO TALK A LITTLE BIT ABOUT AFRICAN-AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE. SIGN LANGUAGE WAS BROUGHT TO AMERICA BY-- AND DEAF PEOPLE, UH, METHOD OF COMMUNICATION WAS... AND BLACK SIGN LANGUAGE IS THE SAME KIND OF IDEA. WHETHER YOU WANT TO CALL IT AFRICAN SIGN LANGUAGE OR BLACK SIGN LANGUAGE IT REALLY IS INTERCHANGEABLE. I HAVE TRAINED OVER 10 SEMINARS WITH ASL, AND THERE ARE SOME DIFFERENCES, BUT... IT WAS ... BY A GROUP OF PEOPLE WHO...LEARNED SIGN LANGUAGE FROM THE STREET, FROM BLACK DEAF CLUBS, FROM SOCIAL ... BLACK HEARING PEOPLE--THEY WERE INFLUENCED BY THE FREEDOM AND THE MOVEMENT AND THE WAY THE PEOPLE JIVED, AND TOOK THAT ON AND INCORPORATED THAT... HEARING PEOPLE AND BLACK PEOPLE. AFTER THAT, BLACK PEOPLE IN GENERAL UNDERSTOOD ABOUT DEAF PEOPLE. OFTEN, SOMEBODY SAYS THAT OTHER DEAF PEOPLE ARE THE SAME AS BLACK PEOPLE BECAUSE-- BECAUSE BLACK PEOPLE ARE SO, IT'S SUCH A STRONG MINORITY... [INDISTINCT] THEY'RE, LIKE... IN GENERAL, WITH ALL BLACK PEOPLE ABOUT THEIR ISSUES. AND I ASKED THEM, DO YOU THINK THERE IS SUCH A THING AS BLACK SIGN LANGUAGE? NOW I'M GONNA ASK YOU THAT. I WANT YOU TO GIVE IT A LOT OF THOUGHT WHEN WE COME TO THAT PART. HOLD YOUR THOUGHTS ON THAT FOR RIGHT NOW. A FRIEND OF MINE, WHO IS ALSO BLACK, AND IS INVOLVED AND GOING TO COLLEGE AND HAS A GOOD JOB, HE'S A PROFESSIONAL... I ASKED--I PUT THE QUESTION TO HIM. "IS THERE A BLACK SIGN LANGUAGE?" HE SAID, "NO, NO." I SAID, "WHY?" HE SAID THAT BLACK PEOPLE REALLY DON'T KNOW THEIR OWN LANGUAGE. WHEN THEY SEE A BLACK PERSON USE ASL, THEY DON'T HAVE THEIR OWN BLACK SIGN LANGUAGE BECAUSE THEY'VE BEEN EDUCATED BY THE WHITE SOCIETY. AND I SAID, "AH, YES, BUT THEY HAVE A HIDDEN SOCIETY "THAT THEY ... FOR SUPPORTING EACH OTHER FOR THEIR OWN SOCIAL NEEDS." [INDISTINCT] ...NOT TOGETHER? ...OR AFTER-SCHOOL HOURS, AFTER THE EDUCATION BY THE WHITE MAJORITY HAS FINISHED. THEY GET TOGETHER, AND THEY TALK. AND THEY JIVE, AND... ...BY THE WHITE SOCIETY. [LAUGHTER] YOU KNOW WHAT THAT MEANS WHEN I DO THIS. [INDISTINCT] AND MY RESPONSE TO THIS IS... [INDISTINCT] NOW...[INDISTINCT] LANGUAGE IS SOMETHING I WANT TO KNOW. I'M CURIOUS. WHAT ARE YOUR IDEAS ABOUT WHAT IS COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE? SHE'S SAYING COMMUNICATION. ANYTHING ELSE? OH, WELL, YEAH, OK. ATTITUDE. - UM, PARTS OF THE BODY [INDISTINCT] FOR DISCUSSION? - WELL, IT HAS RULES. IT HAS STRUCTURES, RIGHT? [INDISTINCT] - RIGHT. OTHER IDEAS? [INDISTINCT] - MY EXPRESSION OF LANGUAGE IS SIMPLE-- A WAY OF EXPRESSING YOURSELF THROUGH HANDS, THROUGH SIGN, THROUGH BODY MOVEMENTS, THROUGH SONG, THROUGH WORDS, THROUGH VOCABULARY, THROUGH THE WRITTEN WORD, ANY VEHICLE THAT EXPRESSES YOURSELF... [INDISTINCT] SO, I LOOKED UP ... IN THE DICTIONARY AND FOUND SEVERAL MEANINGS AND I WANTED TO GIVE THEM TO YOU NOW. [INDISTINCT] BUT I WANT TO TALK TO YOU ABOUT WHAT THE DEFINITION OF LANGUAGE IS. ...A SYSTEM OF HUMAN EXPRESSION BY MEANS OF WORDS IN SPACE OR WRITING; 2--A PARTICULAR SYSTEM OF WORDS AS USED BY A PEOPLE OR A NATION. 3--ANY SYSTEM OF SIGNS, MOVEMENT, ET CETERA, USED TO EXPRESS MEANING OR FEELING. THIS DEFINITION MEANS THAT THESE ARE...[INDISTINCT] THERE MAY NOT BE ANY RULES, BUT JAMES WOODWARD, WHO WAS A HEARING MAN, WHO'S DONE A LOT OF RESEARCH ON THAT KIND OF-- [INDISTINCT] BLACK PEOPLE, HAD FOUND THAT THERE ARE RULES. - YES, AND ...BLACK PEOPLE HAD THEIR OWN FORM OF ... - BUT I WOULD LIKE OTHER PEOPLE TO KNOW ABOUT THAT. I'VE NEVER HEARD OF THAT... - THERE'S ANOTHER BOOK THAT WAS WRITTEN BY... OH, WHAT WAS HIS NAME? - THE BOOK OF BLACK DEAF AMERICA. ARE WE THAT DIFFERENT? - THAT'S A VERY POPULAR BOOK, BUT I DON'T KNOW THIS BOOK THAT HE'S REFERRING TO. I DON'T KNOW ANYTHING ABOUT IT. OK, NOW, BLACK DEAF PEOPLE ...THE IDEA THAT THERE'S [INDISTINCT] AND THAT THERE'S RESEARCH FOR. [INDISTINCT] AND I WANT TO LET YOU KNOW THAT HONESTLY. THE FIRST WORKSHOP I GAVE ON THIS ISSUE... YOU START TALKING ABOUT--A LOT OF PEOPLE START TALKING ABOUT... I WANT ALL OF YOU TO ... - I FEEL THAT RESEARCH DOES NEED TO BE DONE REGARDING CULTURAL INFLUENCE... TO KNOW THAT BLACK PEOPLE HAVE THEIR OWN CULTURE, OF COURSE. AND OF COURSE, THAT CULTURE IS GONNA AFFECT THEIR LANGUAGE. [INDISTINCT] - WELL, I THINK THAT WE HAVE A PROBLEM BECAUSE THERE ARE SO MANY DIFFERENT COMMUNITIES. THAT PARALLEL BLACK DEAF CULTURE. SO...IF YOU HOPE TO MAKE A BROAD STATEMENT ABOUT THAT, YOU WILL THINK ABOUT THAT CULTURE AND THEN, INTERESTINGLY, WE'RE ALSO PART OF A LARGER, BROADER CULTURE... [INDISTINCT] ...AND WE SAY SOMETIMES... AND I THINK WHAT MICHELLE'S TRYING TO SAY IS THAT WE NEED TO WORK TOGETHER TO DO THAT... - NOW, I THINK I DISAGREE WITH... I THINK WE'RE TOO ... FOR OUR POSITION. ...SHOULD LET BLACK PEOPLE THEMSELVES DO THE RESEARCH. I THINK THEY HAVE A STRONGER UNDERSTANDING. AND THEY HAVE THE LANGUAGE THEMSELVES. THE RESEARCH, PROFESSIONAL RESEARCH--YOU DON'T HAVE ANY... - I AGREE THAT BLACK PEOPLE ARE ...FROM RESEARCH. THAT'S RIGHT. [INDISTINCT] WE'VE HAD MORE INTEREST ON DEAFNESS, ON BLACK CULTURE. SO I WANT TO KNOW, "WHERE IS THE RESEARCH? "...BLACK DEAF PERSON ABOUT BLACK DEAF CULTURE? WHERE ARE THE ...?" [INDISTINCT] ...IN THIS WORKSHOP. I WANT THE RESEARCH TO HAPPEN. I WANT YOU TO GIVE ME THE POWER OF YOUR IDEAS AND YOUR ENTHUSIASM SO THAT I CAN CONTRIBUTE, BECAUSE I WANT... - OK, WELL...[INDISTINCT] I FEEL THAT ... RESEARCH, BUT I WOULD LIKE TO SEE A KIND OF VARIETY... NOT JUST FOR ... I WOULD LIKE TO SEE MORE... - OK, [INDISTINCT] THAT'S THE REASON WE HAVE LANGUAGE IS SO THAT ALL THESE DIFFERENT COUNTRIES-- GERMAN OR AFRICAN-- GERMANY OR DIFFERENT COUNTRIES IN AFRICA ALL THESE DIFFERENT CULTURES CAN UNDERSTAND EACH OTHER. AND THEN DEAF PEOPLE NEED TO HAVE THAT KIND OF FORUM... [INDISTINCT] NOW I WANT TO SHOW YOU A VIDEO THAT'S A VERY RECENT PERFORMANCE. I WANT YOU TO KNOW THE TYPICAL ONYX...ON BLACK DEAF CULTURE. [INDISTINCT] THERE'S A RULE, A KIND OF RHYTHM THAT THEY USE THEIR BODIES-- WITH WHICH THEY USE THEIR BODIES. SO I WANT YOU TO TAKE NOTE OF THESE ELEMENTS. AND NOTICE THE BLACK FEMALE WOMAN, HOW SHE USES HER HIPS AND HOW SHE USES HER CHEST... AND HER HEAD. OK. AND I WANT YOU TO NOTICE THE BLACK MAN. HE TENDS TO ROLL HIS SHOULDERS FORWARD A LITTLE BIT. WALK LIKE THIS AND HOLD HIS HANDS A CERTAIN WAY. HANDS TEND TO BE OPEN LIKE THIS. AND SOMETIMES THEY USE THEIR FEET. I KNOW IT'S EMPHASIZED... [INDISTINCT] AND OF COURSE IT'S VERY IMPORTANT. AND SOUND IS INCLUDED, TOO. I KNOW ABOUT DEAF--THAT DEAF PEOPLE'S SOUNDS ARE RELEVANT. [INDISTINCT] ...AT BLACK PEOPLE IN GENERAL... SO I WANT TO SHOW THE DEAF VIDEOTAPE NOW. THIS IS A [INDISTINCT]. OH, AND FIRST I WANT TO TALK A LITTLE BIT ABOUT WHAT'S INVOLVED IN THIS. THIS IS ABOUT TOUSSAINT, WHO IS THE NAME OF A PERSON. UH, ACTUALLY, THERE ARE 2 DIFFERENT NAMES. THE FIRST IS TOUSSAINT LOUVERTURE, WHO WAS A VERY FAMOUS FRENCH BLACK MAN WHO WAS INVOLVED IN THE WAR A LONG TIME AGO. AND THERE'S THIS OTHER PERSON, WHO'S ALSO NAMED TOUSSAINT. JOE. AND HE'S A HOMETOWN BOY. THIS IS EDITED SEGMENT BEFORE WE'LL BE SHOWING YOU. SO, THERE'S A YOUNG PERSON, A YOUNG GIRL, WHO HAS A FANTASY RELATIONSHIP WITH THE FIRST TOUSSAINT, THE FAMOUS FRENCH PERSON. AND SHE MEETS HER IMAGINARY FRIEND. AND THEY WALK TOGETHER AND TALK TOGETHER AND HAVE A REAL STRONG RELATIONSHIP, WHERE SHE LOVES THIS FRIEND THAT SHE HAS, ALTHOUGH HE'S JUST IN HER FANTASY WORLD. UNTIL SHE MEETS THE REAL TOUSSAINT, A REAL PERSON SHE ..., SHE DROPS THE FANTASY. AND THAT'S THE MONOLOGUE I'LL BE SHOWING TO YOU NOW. [INDISTINCT] AND I WANT YOU ALL TO NOTICE THE FEELINGS, EMOTIONS THAT COME THROUGH, THE MOVEMENT, THE ATTITUDES OF THE CHARACTERS. NOW, THIS WILL BEGIN-- [INDISTINCT] VERY SOFT FOCUS BY THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY, LIGHTING TECHNIQUES TO EMPHASIZE THAT THE-- I DON'T KNOW IF YOU'LL BE ABLE TO SEE. AND YOU'RE GONNA SEE THE MOVEMENT OF THE FEET. YOU'RE GONNA SEE 2 SPECIAL ... [INDISTINCT] [INDISTINCT] A LOT OF THOSE WHITE FOLKS TRYIN' TO LIVE LIKE...HOMIES. [INDISTINCT] YOU EVER TRY TO READ 15 BOOKS IN 3 WEEKS? [SHOUTING] [INDISTINCT] ...I'M GONNA GO TO MY INTEGRATED HOME, INTEGRATED STREET, INTEGRATED SCHOOL. [INDISTINCT] TOUSSAINT. [INDISTINCT] ...AND YOU JUST STAND THERE, [INDISTINCT], TRYIN' TO GET ALL INTO MY BUSINESS. I LOVE TOUSSAINT. WHAT SHOULD I DO? [INDISTINCT] HER NAME IS... [INDISTINCT] I'M TOUSSAINT JOE. WOW! [INDISTINCT] YOU UNDERSTANDIN' HIM? TOUSSAINT SURE DON'T LET BLACK FOLKS TELL HIM NOTHIN'. [INDISTINCT] I MARRIED TOUSSAINT ... IN 1955! [SHOUTING] [APPLAUSE] NOW, YOU CAN SEE THE SPECIAL EFFECT MAY BE A LITTLE DISORIENTING. WE DID THAT IN ORDER TO SHOW THE KIND OF TECHNIQUE OF... [INDISTINCT] NOW, WE USED THE COLOR BROWN BECAUSE... [INDISTINCT] THAT CHARACTER, AND THE COLOR BROWN... ANY QUESTIONS ABOUT ANYTHING THAT YOU NOTICED? [INDISTINCT] WELL, ORIGINALLY, IT WAS GONNA BE A TAPE WITHOUT ANY SPECIAL EFFECTS, BUT PEOPLE COULDN'T SEE WHAT WAS HAPPENING. SO WE DECIDED TO CLOSE THEM AND IN SPECIAL EFFECTS. ALSO, WE DO HAVE ANOTHER SIMILAR--ANOTHER VIDEOTAPE, AND I'LL BE ABLE TO SHOW THAT LATER. AND THERE'S NO SPECIAL EFFECTS IN THAT ONE. AND MAYBE THAT'S WHERE THAT... ANY MORE QUESTIONS? - [INDISTINCT] ....AND IT'S, LIKE, PLAIN, ORDINARY... - THE REASON FOR THAT IS ... [INDISTINCT] BESIDES, THE SOUND MADE THEM NORMAL. THAT ATTITUDE OR THAT CULTURE WAS INVOLVED WITH THOSE SIGNS, BUT THE SIGNS THEMSELVES WERE ORDINARY, AND SO YOU'RE RIGHT. - I SAW THAT DEAF ..., AND I THINK THAT MY OPINION, IT WAS ONE OF THE BEST EXAMPLES OF THEATER BY A DEAF PERSON THAN THEATER WRITTEN BY A HEARING PERSON. IF IT WAS BLACK SENTENCES, MORE INFO THAT WE COULD UNDERSTAND, THEN I'M SURE I WOULD LOVE TO SEE AGAIN. I WOULD LOVE IT EVEN MORE. - AND THEN YOU COULD HEAR IT THE WAY IT SHOULD BE DONE, WITHOUT ANY ... - YOU KNOW, I WOULD LOVE THAT. - THANK YOU. ...IT WAS WRITTEN IN BLACK ENGLISH. IN FACT, ...WROTE IT IN BLACK ENGLISH. SO, UM...WELL, SHE KEPT SAYING THE WORD "WITH." SHE WOULD USE THE WORD "WID," FOR EXAMPLE. INSTEAD, SAY "ALLA" INSTEAD OF FORMAL ENGLISH. INSTEAD OF SAYING "THAT," SHE'D SAY "THA." AND SHE WROTE IT IN THE WAY THAT BLACK PEOPLE SPEAK, AND SO IT WAS VERY DIFFICULT TO TRANSLATE. AND I TRIED MY BEST AND TRIED TO INCORPORATE THE BLACK ATTITUDE IN THAT AND THE BLACK WAY OF SEEING. AND, OF COURSE, I'M REALLY NOT MYSELF... [INDISTINCT] - [INDISTINCT] OF THE PLAY IS SIGN LANGUAGE. BUT WHAT ABOUT--YOU TALKED ABOUT A SIGN LANGUAGE BEFORE THAT SOUNDED DIFFERENTLY? IS THAT THE SAME? THE SAME? - THAT SIGN LANGUAGE I TALKED ABOUT ... IS NOT THE SAME AS... ...IN THIS PLAY. YOU'RE RIGHT. THAT WOULD BE CONVERSATIONAL SIGN, NOT THE SIGN LANGUAGE I... IT'S VERY DIFFERENT THAN THE SIGN ... - OK, HAVE YOU EVER KNOWN ANYONE WHO'S DEVELOPED OR CREATED A BLACK ASL? - AGAIN. - CAN I HAVE THE QUESTION REPEATED, PLEASE? - IS THERE ANYONE TO THIS DAY WHO HAS DEVELOPED A BLACK ASL? - HERE? OH, YEAH, WELL, THAT'S WHY I'M WORKING WITH BLACK DEAF COMMUNITIES, BECAUSE WE WANT TO DEVELOP A PLAY CALLED "THE LIFE OF A DEAF, BLACK AFRICAN-AMERICAN-- DEAF AFRICAN-AMERICAN." WE'RE DEVELOPING IT, AND WE'RE HOPING TO HAVE IT ... NEXT FALL. AND IT'S IN THE PROCESS OF WRITING IT RIGHT NOW. SO WE WANT TO ...BLACK DEAF PEOPLE AND GET THEIR INPUT... [INDISTINCT] AND INCORPORATE THAT INTO OUR PIECE. [INDISTINCT] - SO, FOR EXAMPLE, ARE ALL THESE-- - OH, OK, FINE. [INDISTINCT] OK, NOW, I WANT TO TALK ABOUT WHEN BLACK DEAF PEOPLE HANG AROUND WITH BLACK HEARING PEOPLE, AND THEY COPY AND THEY START THE SAME KIND OF MOVEMENTS. UM, ALL RIGHT. THEY DID SAY SOMETHING ABOUT "ALL RIGHT." THAT'S THE SIGN FOR "ALL RIGHT." NO WAY... SIGNED LIKE THIS. HELLO, YOUNG FELLA. YOU SAY "YO, MAN." YOU KNOW, "YO, MAN, WHAT'S UP?" YOU KNOW, THAT'S THE SAME TYPE GESTURE. WHAT DO YOU THINK THAT IS? WHAT DO YOU THINK THAT IS THAT I JUST SIGNED? - [INDISTINCT] - [INDISTINCT] - RIGHT, BUT WHAT DOES IT MEAN? ALL JACKED UP AND READY TO GO. WHAT ABOUT THIS? IT MEANS "BAD." IT MEANS, "OH..." YOU KNOW, LIKE, "YOUR CLOTHES ARE BAD." IF YOU'RE ALL DRESSED UP, IT'S "BAD." AS HE WAS SAYING, [INDISTINCT] THE WAY THAT WE'RE MOVING? SO, INTERESTING. SO IT'S BORROWING BACK AND FORTH. ENGLISH--[INDISTINCT] WHAT DO YOU THINK THAT IS? WHAT DID I JUST SIGN THERE? TALKING? NO. FIGHT. RIGHT. TWO PEOPLE ARE GONNA FIGHT. [INDISTINCT] SO, THAT'S... I MEAN, REAL, REAL BAD. HE'S GONNA BEAT YOU UP. AND USE EYE CONTACT FOR IT, TOO. [INDISTINCT] - THAT WAS DONE IN NEW YORK CITY? - RIGHT. THAT'S A CITY SIGN I USED. - WELL, I'M WONDERING IF THERE HAVE BEEN ANY NEWER SIGNS THAT HAVE COME UP, BECAUSE THERE'S NOTHING ... [INDISTINCT] - I THINK WE TEND TO THE YOUNGER BLACKS-- [LAUGHTER] THE ONES WHO REALLY ARE OUT THERE TALKING. RIGHT? PEOPLE DON'T KNOW BLACK SIGN. OLD PEOPLE DON'T KNOW BLACK SIGN. [INDISTINCT] - BUT THERE'S A BLACK DEAF [INDISTINCT] AND HE AND I ARE... HE SIGNS VERY DIFFERENT, SO IT SEEMS THAT... WITH WORDS LIKE "SOUL" AND A FEW WORDS LIKE THAT, BUT I DON'T KNOW. [INDISTINCT] - [INDISTINCT] I WOULD ALSO TELL PEOPLE THAT I SEE A DIFFERENCE HOW SIGN ...ORAL AND USE MORE BEHAVIOR, LIKE IT'S PHYSICAL, LIKE WITH TOUSSAINT, YOU KNOW. THEY EXPRESS WITH THEIR BODIES MORE THAN USING ... AND I SEE, YOU KNOW, WHEN THEY GET TOGETHER, THEY COMMUNICATE WITH EACH OTHER. AS THEY BECOME MORE AND MORE EDUCATED IN THEIR LIFE, THEY'RE USING LESS AND LESS PHYSICAL EXPRESSION WHEN THEY TALK, YOU KNOW. [INDISTINCT] WE'RE WILD AND MORE WILLING TO DO THAT. BUT ALSO, WE ... SOUTHERN BLACK DEAF AND NORTHERN BLACK DEAF PEOPLE. [INDISTINCT] - AN OBVIOUS THING ABOUT BLACK PEOPLE BECOMING MORE EDUCATED AND THEN... [PERSON COUGHING] SO, NOW WE KNOW MORE AND MORE THAT DEAF BLACK PEOPLE WHO HAVE DEAF CHILDREN, STUDENTS WHO ARE DEAF-- THEY DON'T REALLY CARE ABOUT EDUCATION. AND WE NEED TO EDUCATE THEM. WE NEED TO LET THEM KNOW THAT BEING A...[INDISTINCT] THEY CAN...THEY DON'T WANT TO LISTEN TO ME. THEY DON'T WANT ANYONE TO HELP THEM. AND HOW CAN WE DO THAT IF THEY HAVE AN ATTITUDE? THEY DON'T WANT ANYONE INVOLVED MESSING WITH THEIR STUFF. SO, "HEY, HOMIE. THINK ABOUT ME. WHAT AM I SUPPOSED TO DO?" [INDISTINCT] PEOPLE LIKE YOU AND I, WE CAN BECOME ROLE MODELS, POSITIVE ROLE MODELS FOR THE YOUNGER BLACKS LIKE ME THAT REALLY NEED THAT. [INDISTINCT] - ...BLACK DEAF SIGN LANGUAGE. YOU FEEL AS THAT IT'S-- THAT THAT MIGHT BE ACCEPTED BY THE DEAF PEOPLE IN THE COMMUNITY, BUT WE USE AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE... [INDISTINCT] BUT WE THINK THAT LANGUAGE IS FROWNED UPON, LOOKED DOWN AND SEEN AS SOMETHING LOWER. I KNOW A BLACK MAN SO I KNOW THAT LANGUAGE. MY ... SPOKE ENGLISH A LOT AND... WHAT DO YOU MEAN? YOU THINK THE ...ARE BOTH AS BAD AS ONE AS THE OTHER? - IT REALLY DEPENDS ON THE INDIVIDUAL THAT HE WOULD HAVE PERFECTED IT. [INDISTINCT] THEN THEY ADDED IN A DORM, AND I'D HANG AROUND A LOT WITH THE BLACK DEAF KIDS IN THE DORMS AT NATIONAL HOUSE. SO WE'RE NEIGHBORS, TOO, TO OTHER BLACK PEOPLE, AND THERE'S A LOT OF BLACK DEAF ADVOCATES NEAR ME. SO...BUT THAT CAN'T BE WHAT ... INSTEAD, I HAVE A STANDARD-- [PERSON COUGHING] BUT I THINK IT IS ... ACCEPTED. [INDISTINCT] ...THE RIGHT ENVIRONMENT, THE EMPHASIS, OF COURSE, IS ON THE ENVIRONMENT. YOU WOULDN'T WANT TO GO BACK HOME. THE EMPHASIS BEGINS HERE. [INDISTINCT] ...BUT THAT'S NOT TRUE. [INDISTINCT] NOW, IN ROCHESTER, I LIVE IN THE CITY, AND IT WOULD DEPEND ON WHAT KIND OF FINANCIAL ... YOU'RE IN. I KNOW IT'S A CERTAIN WAY YOU LOOK AT THAT INFLUENCES... [INDISTINCT] I AGREE WITH THAT. [INDISTINCT] - RIGHT. THE MORE INVOLVED YOU ARE IN THE WHITE COMMUNITY, OF COURSE, THE MORE--YEAH. [INDISTINCT] - [INDISTINCT] - YOU NEED TO WORK ON YOUR SURVIVAL SKILLS, RIGHT? [INDISTINCT] BUT THAT DOESN'T TAKE AWAY FROM WHAT YOU HAD BEFORE. AND EVERYONE'S SAYING "BEFORE." [PEOPLE TALKING AT ONCE] - OK, THERE'S 2 THINGS. [INDISTINCT] THERE ARE REGIONAL SIGNS, RIGHT? I SIGNED "HOSPITAL" AT THE HEAD AND "HOSPITAL" AT THE FOREARM AND "HOSPITAL" ON THE HAND, BUT I DON'T SEE THAT NECESSARILY STRONG ... BUT MORE A REGIONAL. [INDISTINCT] ...THE WAY THAT PEOPLE IN NEW YORK CITY... [INDISTINCT] - WELL, USE THE SIGN. - OK. THIS IS IT. - [INDISTINCT] AT THAT TIME. DO YOU USE MORE ENGLISH, OR DO YOU USE MORE BLACK SIGN LANGUAGE? WHAT DO YOU DO? - I THINK YOU USE MORE ENGLISH. THAT'S WHAT I WOULD DO. [INDISTINCT] WE HAD AN ORAL INTERPRETER THERE WHO USED HIS FINGERS. HE OFFERED SIGN LANGUAGE THERE, BUT YOU UNDERSTAND THAT WE NEED AN... WE NEED A BLACK INTERPRETER THERE. IT'S VERY DIFFICULT TO FIND THAT, BUT WE NEED TO EMPHASIZE... [INDISTINCT] IN ORDER TO LAND THEIR AUDIENCE SO THAT THE BLACK DEAF AUDIENCE UNDERSTAND THE INTERPRETER. IF YOU PAY FOR JUST THE REGULAR, STANDARD INTERPRETER FOR A BLACK DEAF AUDIENCE, THERE'LL BE A VERY BIG DIFFERENCE BETWEEN COMMUNICATION FOR THE INTERPRETERS IN THE ... BECAUSE OFTEN AN INTERPRETER WILL NOT KNOW HOW TO INCORPORATE THAT CULTURE IN THEIR INTERPRETATION. SO, IT REALLY WOULD HELP THAT DEAF AUDIENCE IF WE COULD GET BLACK INTERPRETERS, BECAUSE WHITE INTERPRETERS DON'T KNOW THE CULTURE. THEY CAN INTERPRET, YES, BUT A LARGE PERCENT OF A BLACK DEAF AUDIENCE WILL BE [INDISTINCT] SO, OFTENTIMES, WE GET A WHITE INTERPRETER. AND IF THEY KNOW HOW TO INTERPRET FOR THAT AUDIENCE, THEN YOU MAY EXPECT-- WELL, WE DO HAVE ONE ORAL INTERPRETER. AND SHE'LL BE ... FOR A LOT OF PEOPLE TO UNDERSTAND. SO WE DON'T HAVE A CLAIM FOR THAT TO BE [INDISTINCT]. - NOW, THE OTHER WHITE INTERPRETERS, THEY DON'T SIGN ASL, THOUGH. THEY DON'T SIGN ASL, THOUGH. YES, IN MY EXPERIENCE, YES. I SEE. I SEE. I SHOULD GIVE YOU AN EXAMPLE. [INDISTINCT] WE'RE TALKING ABOUT ASL BEING INCORPORATED IN THE SCHOOLS FOR DEAF PEOPLE, AND OFTEN IT ISN'T. AND IT'S THE SAME WAY. [INDISTINCT] NOT NECESSARILY WOULD A BLACK CHURCH WOULD USE ASL. - OK, WELL, I'LL GIVE YOU A LITTLE MORE INFORMATION THEN ABOUT BLACK INTERPRETERS LIKE... ONE INTERPRETER FROM WASHINGTON, D.C. SHE ASSOCIATED WITH A LOT OF BLACK PEOPLE. [INDISTINCT] AND THERE'S ANOTHER BLACK INTERPRETER IN THE INNER CITY IN CALIFORNIA...L.A. YOU'VE GOT TO BE CAREFUL ABOUT YOUR SELECTION OF ... WHAT YOU CHOOSE... THEY CAN CHOOSE, AND THEY WILL FIND THE MOST APPROPRIATE TYPE OF WAY-- - [INDISTINCT] - DOESN'T MATTER. - OK. [INDISTINCT] WE TALKED ABOUT... [INDISTINCT] ...NOT NECESSARILY THE FORMAL PRESENTATION. THAT'S ONE THING. NOT THE WORKSHOP, NOT THE INVITATIONS PEOPLE SEND, NOT THAT KIND OF THING. BUT WHEN PEOPLE HANG AROUND, SOCIALIZE... [INDISTINCT] AFTER ALL THE WORKSHOPS ARE OVER. - YES, THEY DO USE BLACK SIGN LANGUAGE WHEN THEY JUST HANGIN' OUT WITH EACH OTHER. - OK, NOW, UM--A LOT OF PEOPLE-- WHAT ABOUT THIS WAY? ANOTHER EXAMPLE. WHAT'S THIS MEAN? WHAT'S THIS MEAN? THIS IS A FRENCH ONE. WE DISCUSSED THAT HISPANIC [INDISTINCT] BUT WE DON'T KNOW IF THEY BORROWED IT FROM HISPANIC CULTURE. [INDISTINCT] WHAT DOES THIS MEAN? - UH...UH... - WHAT DOES IT MEAN? [INDISTINCT] - OH, I THINK I'VE HAD A FEW GOOD EXAMPLES OF THAT. I WANT TO HAVE MORE... I THINK THAT YOU WENT FROM HAVING TO SPEAK TO SIGN LANGUAGE. YOU KNOW, IF A HEARING PERSON COMES UP, A DEAF PERSON--THEY'RE GONNA SIGN A LOT MORE ENGLISH THAN THEY WOULD IF A DEAF PERSON SIGNED A LOT. [INDISTINCT] THE SAME WAY YOU'D HAVE-- - THE SAME WAY A BLACK PERSON WOULDN'T NECESSARILY SIGN BLACK ENGLISH ... BECAUSE OF WHAT I'M TALKING ABOUT. DO YOU WANT-- [INDISTINCT] - NO, I WOULD BE GETTING AN INTERPRETER. THEY DO IT DIFFERENTLY [INDISTINCT]. - ...THE WHITE PERSON THAT KNOWS DEAF CULTURE NOT BLACK CULTURE. - HOW ARE THEY DOING? [INDISTINCT] - I'LL LET HER ANSWER THAT. I'LL LET HER ANSWER THAT. WELL, WHAT I'M TRYING TO SAY IS THAT A WHITE PERSON IN A DEAF CULTURE, BLACK CULTURE... SO, IF I WAS WHITE, I'D GO, "DO YOU MIND IF I SIGN WITH YOU?" [INDISTINCT] DON'T TRY TO LOOK LIKE BLACK PEOPLE. BE A WHITE PERSON LIKE YOU ARE. - [INDISTINCT] I THINK THAT WHITE PEOPLE HAVE TO MAKE THE MOVE. [INDISTINCT] I THINK THAT WHITE PEOPLE HAVE TO MOVE. I THINK THE WHITE CAN-- WHY CAN'T WHITE PEOPLE MAKE THE MOVE INTO THE BLACK DEAF CULTURE? THE BLACK DEAF CULTURE ALWAYS MAKING THE MOVE INTO THE WHITE DEAF CULTURE. I THINK IT'S VERY IMPORTANT. WE ADD A LOT OF VALUE THAT WE NEED TO PRESERVE, A LOT OF LANGUAGE THAT WE WANT TO PRESERVE. WE DON'T WANT TO LOSE IT. - I THINK THAT MAYBE... [INDISTINCT] - RIGHT, RIGHT. BUT YOU HAVE TO HOLD ON THIS... OK, FOR EXAMPLE, IF A BLACK ... PERSON WENT AND TALKED QUITE LOUD, AND THEN IN A ... WAY, [INDISTINCT] ...THAT PASSION THAT THEY'VE INTERNALIZED ALL THESE YEARS. NOW, THAT COULD BE THE RESULT OF EARLY CHILDHOOD ... OR CHILD ABUSE OR ALCOHOL ADDICTION. I DON'T KNOW, BUT WHY WOULD YOU ...? [INDISTINCT] OK, OK, ONE MORE TIME. [ALL TALKING AT ONCE] - [INDISTINCT] ...HAD A LOT OF MOVEMENT, A LOT OF RHYTHM, AND HAD, YOU KNOW, PART OF THEIR CULTURE... [INDISTINCT] - OK, NOW, LAST QUESTION. - [INDISTINCT] ...ABOUT BLACK DEAF PEOPLE. THE SIGNIFICANT WHITE PEOPLE--BLACK PEOPLE OR BLACK HEARING PEOPLE, WHITE DEAF PEOPLE AND BLACK DEAF PEOPLE. NOW, BLACK DEAF PEOPLE, I WONDER HOW THEY FEEL ABOUT DEAF WHITE PEOPLE WHO TRY TO BECOME ONE OF THE BLACK PEOPLE. THEY TRY TO JOIN AND TRY TO LIVE IN THE CULTURE, BUT I WONDER HOW THEY FEEL ABOUT THAT. THE SAME KIND OF THING WITH HOW DEAF PEOPLE MAY FEEL ABOUT HEARING PEOPLE WHO TRY TO BECOME MENTORS OF THEIR COMMUNITY. AND YOU CAN ALWAYS WORK WITH THEM, BUT THOSE KIND OF PEOPLE WHO REALLY WANT TO BECOME DEAF, THEY HAVE TO DRAW A LINE AND SAY, "THAT'S NOT YOUR PLACE." SO, WE HAVE TO EDUCATE HEARING PEOPLE. YOU HAVE TO EDUCATE US, OTHER BLACK PEOPLE. - THAT'S EXACTLY RIGHT. SO, YOU'RE STARTING NOW TO EDUCATE US IN THIS WORKSHOP. - OK, GOOD. NOW, I WANT TO ASK YOU, WHAT IS BLACK DEAF CULTURE? WHAT DO YOU THINK THAT IS? - [INDISTINCT] - BLACK DEAF CULTURE. THERE'S A BIG DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BLACK ... I'M TALKING ABOUT BLACK DEAF CULTURE. WHAT IS IT? WHAT DO I MEAN BY THAT? WHAT DOES IT MEAN? - OK, FIRST OF ALL, THE DEPTH, THE ..., THE BEHAVIOR, THEIR HABITS, THEIR CULTURE THAT [INDISTINCT] - OK. OK, SO IT'S RELATED TO THEIR SOCIAL LIVES. WHAT DO THEY THINK? THEY THINK DIFFERENTLY FROM THE WHITE CULTURE. THEY'RE VERY INTO A GROUP. THEY HANG OUT WITH DEAF CLUBS. THEY HAVE A DIFFERENT WAY OF SOCIALIZING THAT'S DIFFERENT THAN THE WHITE PEOPLE. [INDISTINCT] - [INDISTINCT] - [INDISTINCT] - I DON'T UNDERSTAND. WHAT DID YOU MEAN THAT, YOU KNOW... [INDISTINCT] - [INDISTINCT] - [INDISTINCT] - [INDISTINCT] - NOW...IN THE PAST, MUCH [INDISTINCT]. SO, THAT'S IT. PEOPLE HAVE PROBLEMS. BACK THEN, NO PROBLEMS. BUT...NO. NO PROBLEMS BACK THEN. - HOW CAN YOU PRESENT IT? - I THINK THAT BACK THEN, BLACK DEAF PEOPLE HAD NO PROBLEMS, BUT NOW THEY HAVE MANY MORE PROBLEMS THAN IN THE PAST. [ALL TALKING AT ONCE] - I'M ASKING IN WHAT WAY. WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY THAT? - [INDISTINCT] - NO. MAYBE--MAYBE I'M WRONG THAT, LIKE, I DON'T KNOW WHAT KIND OF EXPERIENCE YOU HAVE, YOU KNOW, BUT I WAS A LITTLE KID BY THAT TIME. BUT NOW, 4 IS JUST LIKE NOTHING, YOU KNOW. OF COURSE, IT'S A PROBLEM. FOR NOW, I NEED TO BE IN THE GAME. OK? I LOST 3 FRIENDS TO ... PROBLEM, DRUG PROBLEM, EVERYTHING. I DON'T LIVE WITH MY FATHER. I LIVE WITH MY MOTHER. YOU KNOW, THEY RAISED ME. - MAYBE YOU CAN GO-- MAYBE YOU CAN ACCESS... [ALL TALKING AT ONCE] - MAYBE YOU'RE RIGHT, BUT I DO FEEL, IN A WAY, BLACK PEOPLE WILL HAVE MORE ... MORE ANGER, MORE RAGE. THERE'S A MORE HUMAN FACTOR, THE OPPRESSION. [INDISTINCT] ...UNTIL NOW IT'S ABOUT READY TO EXPLODE. [INDISTINCT] MAYBE THIS IS WHAT THE YOUNG MAN IS SAYING. THERE'S MORE RAGE NOW THAT THE POT IS ABOUT TO BOIL OVER BECAUSE BLACK PEOPLE ARE THE [INDISTINCT] AND IT'S THE SAME WAY WITH BLACK DEAF PEOPLE. "HEY, I'M A DEAF PERSON. I'M GONNA SET UP A THEATER GROUP." AND I DID THAT BECAUSE THE ... THAT WE DID FOR 7 YEARS HAS GOT TO END. IT'S TIME. IT'S BEEN ENOUGH, AND WE NEED TO PREVENT THAT. NOW, BLACK PEOPLE IN THE PAST DIDN'T KNOW HOW TO START TO... [INDISTINCT] OK, ONE MORE. - OK. NOW, ...IS THE QUESTION. WHAT IS BLACK DEAF CULTURE? AND I FEEL LIKE IF... THAT GROUP OF PEOPLE ARE SHARING SIMILAR EXPERIENCES, LIFE-AND-DEATH EXPERIENCES, AND... YOU KNOW, WE HERE DON'T HAVE MUCH EXPERIENCE WITH THAT CULTURE..., BUT I THINK THAT IT CAN BE APPLIED TO A CURRENT EXAM-- ANOTHER EXAMPLE. [INDISTINCT] ...AND WHAT WE AS DEAF PEOPLE SHARE. I UNDERSTAND DEAF CULTURE... - I CAN ANSWER YOUR QUESTION. I WAS WONDERING...MAYBE SOME PEOPLE CAN ANSWER OR ARE WONDERING, IN GENERAL, WHAT THEIR PERSPECTIVE WAS. THAT'S ALL. IT DOESN'T MATTER THAT YOU'RE WHITE OR HEARING OR BLACK OR BLACK. I DON'T CARE. I'M JUST ASKING IF THERE ARE BLACK DEAF PROBLEMS. IF YOU LIVE IN THE WORLD, YOU HAVE SEEN DIFFERENT PEOPLE. MAYBE YOU'VE NOTICED DIFFERENT CULTURES THAT SURROUND YOU. YOU KNOW, MAYBE YOU HAD AN OPINION ABOUT IT. [INDISTINCT] IT DOESN'T MATTER, REALLY, WHO YOU ARE-- DEAF, BLACK, HEARING, WHITE. DOESN'T MATTER. - I'D JUST ASK HIM A QUESTION. - [INDISTINCT] YOU KNOW [INDISTINCT] THEY WEREN'T OUT IN THE COMMUNITY. THEY WEREN'T TALKING TO PEOPLE, THEY WEREN'T EDUCATED. THAT WAS CHANGING. - RIGHT. OK. YOU HAVE A QUESTION? - HEARING PEOPLE TEND TO LABEL DEAF AS THEY'RE ALL THE SAME. YOU HAVE TO BE CAREFUL WITH THAT, YOU KNOW. ALL DEAF PEOPLE ARE NOT ALL THE SAME. YOU KNOW, THEY MAY HAVE CERTAIN SIMILARITIES WITHIN THERE, TOO, [INDISTINCT] ...BLACK PEOPLE WHO ARE DEAF, YOU KNOW? YOU HAVE TO BE CAREFUL WITH THOSE. - RIGHT. THERE'S A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ASL AND BSL THAT ALL OF THE PEOPLE HAVE NOW ACCEPTED BSL AS A ... THE OPPOSITE OF THAT, THE ASL. THEY THOUGHT IT WAS A BAD INFLUENCE, BUT NAPPI WAS STILL CALLING BSL AS BAD ASL. ONE OF THEM WANTED TO START ...BSL AS ITS OWN LANGUAGE AND STOP HAVING THIS BAD ATTITUDE TOWARDS IT. I THINK ASL [INDISTINCT]. PEOPLE ARE BEGINNING TO ACCEPT ASL AS ITS OWN LANGUAGE, AND I THINK THAT HAS ... TO BSL. WE NEED TO PULL THAT OUT OF OUR [INDISTINCT]. I KNOW THERE'S A DEAF CULTURE AND A HEARING CULTURE AND A BLACK CULTURE, ALSO. BUT, UM...OH, DRAT. A PERSON CAN BE BLACK AND DEAF. WHICH CULTURE WOULD FEEL MOST AFFILIATIONS? OR WOULD YOU FEEL LIKE YOU'RE NEEDED? OR WOULD YOU LIKE TO PICK? AND SUPPOSE YOU HAD TO PICK ONE, TO BELONG TO EITHER THE DEAF CULTURE OR THE BLACK CULTURE. WOULD YOU--MAYBE ONE OF THOSE CULTURES WOULDN'T ACCEPT BLACK INTERPRETER. WE HAD TO [INDISTINCT] AS A BLACK DEAF PERSON, I FEEL MORE AFFILIATION, STRONGER AFFILIATION WITH BLACK CULTURE, BECAUSE YOU CAN SEE I HAVE AN OBVIOUS SKIN COLOR. I DIDN'T GROW UP AS A BLACK DEAF PERSON. I WAS BLACK. I GREW UP BLACK. I HAD BLACK HEARING PARENTS. SO I GREW UP WITH PART OF THAT FAMILY INSTITUTION. SO I'D SAY THAT MY DEAFNESS IS SECONDARY TO ME BECAUSE MY FAMILY'S ALL HEARING. IN FACT, I FEEL VERY-- LOOK STRONG NEXT TO THEM. OH, AND I'LL FOCUS ON WHAT'S IMPORTANT HERE IS THAT... - WELL, MANY TIMES, YOUR FAMILY WILL PICK FOR YOU WHICH CULTURE YOU'RE GONNA BELONG TO, YOU KNOW. IF YOU GROW UP [INDISTINCT] MY PARENTS DIDN'T WANT ... AND THEY CHOSE FOR ME. [INDISTINCT] AND I WAS NORMALLY AROUND 2 1/2 YEARS OLD. BUT MY PARENTS MADE ME CHOOSE THAT CULTURE, IN A SENSE. SO I STARTED TO ASSOCIATE WITH DEAF CULTURE, AND I REALIZED I HAD A REAL AFFINITY FOR IT AND BECAME A PART OF IT IMMEDIATELY BECAUSE OF THE CONNECTION I FELT WITH THEM. UM, IT'S DIFFERENT, YOU KNOW. IF YOU GROW UP WITH A HEARING FAMILY, AND THEY MAKE A HEARING [INDISTINCT] - I WANTED TO SAY WE ARE RUNNING OUT OF TIME. - NO WAY, NO WAY, NO WAY! - WE ARE JUST TALKING ABOUT IDENTITY... [INDISTINCT] THERE ARE 25 DEAF STUDENTS. [INDISTINCT] WOULD THAT BE PART OF THE DEAF CULTURE? I IDENTIFY MYSELF AS A BLACK PERSON. I GREW UP IN A BLACK FAMILY. YOU KNOW, [INDISTINCT] ...OF BLACK CULTURE. [INDISTINCT] NOT ALL THE PEOPLE ARE IDENTIFIED-- NOT ALL PEOPLE ARE BLACK-IDENTIFIED. IS THERE A...? - OK, NOW I WANT TO SUMMARIZE THROUGH THE WORKSHOP. THERE IS--WELL, WE DISCUSSED A LOT ABOUT IF THERE IS A DEAF BLACK FAMILY. THIS IS A HOT SUBJECT NOW, BUT THIS WORKSHOP IS GONNA OPEN UP AND LET THE DIALOGUE CONTINUE. I WANNA GET FEEDBACK. I GOT FEEDBACK FROM YOU, AND I THINK IT WILL HELP ME 'CAUSE [INDISTINCT] ...AND VALIDATE THE ISSUE OF BLACK DEAF CULTURE. AND I HOPE THAT I DID DO IT. [APPLAUSE]
Notes: 
"This project is supported by a Digitizing Hidden Collections grant from the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR). The grant program is made possible by funding from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation."